Discriminatory practices against girls reduced their survival chances during the 19th century and early 20th century, especially in Southern and Eastern Europe.
Mortality increases appear to be an early-warning measure for political polarization, especially during times when people are suffering.
Diverging trends in economic and health indicators complicate assessments of human welfare. This research applies a new metric to understand the evolution of human welfare in early-industrializing England.
Does rapid urbanization cause rising mortality and worsening sanitation? Nineteenth-century Britain is often used as the classic exemplar of this problem, however we find little evidence that mortality rose in English cities during the Industrial Revolution.
This paper examines the contribution made by studies of the history of human height to our understanding of the history of wellbeing and highlights the continuing importance of historical studies for the present day.
Using rich historical data from the London Foundling Hospital 1892-1919, I find that malnutrition did not affect whether individuals contracted infectious diseases, but it did influence sickness severity from measles.