Will future increases in life expectancy improve life quality? If we consider the elderly, this is unclear, especially among permanently institutionalized individuals, whose quality of life is often worse.
We demonstrate the potential of using existing micro-level data to credibly assess the impact of improved water provision on the household’s welfare.
The creation of the Spanish public hospital system during Franco’s dictatorship was marked by collaboration and competition with the private sector, due to limited funding and political struggles among elites.
Both plague and smallpox used to exert a heavy death toll on society. We eradicated smallpox with a vaccine, but plague disappeared from most of human society for unknown reasons.
Discriminatory practices against girls reduced their survival chances during the 19th century and early 20th century, especially in Southern and Eastern Europe.
Mortality increases appear to be an early-warning measure for political polarization, especially during times when people are suffering.