High borrowing costs hindered town investment in sanitation infrastructure in nineteenth-century England slowing Britain’s mortality decline.
In 19th century Netherlands, early childhood mortality strongly increased in the summer and during heat waves and cold spells.
Summary of the work of Lowes and Montero (2021) showing the lasting impact of colonial medical campaigns on current trust in medicine.
What drove the Dutch sanitary revolution? I draw on contemporary newspapers to argue that financial difficulties played a key role.
The industrial revolution was necessary to trigger investments in sanitary infrastructures, but not sufficient: better medicine and politics were essential.